Vitamins (Micronutrients)

Vitamins (Micronutrients)


Vitamins are organic micronutrients that require the growth of a cell. They are the significant vital nutrients that the human body needs.  

In fact, The dietary guide of vitamins will help you get most of the vitamins from the food you eat. The human body can make Vitamin D and Vitamin K. Vegetarians are requires to take Vitamin-D supplements.

Vitamins have many jobs to do in your body and are necessary for the following functions:

  • Immune function
  • Balancing fluids
  • Heal wounds
  • Resist infections
  • Repairs cell damage
  • Keep nerves and bones healthy
  • Helps you get energy from food (production of energy)
  • Proper blood clotting

There are two types of vitamins- fat-soluble and water-soluble.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Each vitamin has a specific and significant role to play in your body. For promoting your health, growth, and reproduction, vitamins are essential to be incorporated in your daily diet.

The following vitamins are known as fat-soluble vitamins, because of being soluble in organic solvents.

Also, They are transported and absorbed the way fats do.

Fats-soluble vitamins are rich in foods with high fat and are absorbed in the bloodstream when consumed with fat.


(a)Vitamin A: A precursor for vitamin A is beta-carotene.

In fact, The recommended daily allowance of vitamin A is 3500 IU (international unit) for men and 2500 IU for women.

Absorption of this requires bile salts.

In fact, It plays a vital role in vision and interacts with intracellular receptors.

Dietary sources:

  1. Green leafy vegetables
  2. Fruits
  3. Egg yolk

Deficiency manifestations:

  1. Night blindness
  2. Xerophthalmia
  3. Bitot’s spots
  4. Reproductive effects
  5. Nerve lesions

(b)Vitamin D: vitamin D is also known as cholecalciferol, calcitriol.

Individuals exposed to even mild sunshine don’t require this vitamin in diet, which is also known as the sunshine vitamin.

In fact, it affects the growth of bone by stimulating osteoclasts. The effects of calcitriol are to up-regulate serum calcium concentration.

The site of action is intestine bone and kidney.

Also, The intestinal effect considers by the most significant effect of vitamin D on calcium homeostasis.

Dietary sources:

  1. Saltwater fish
  2. Egg yolk
  3. Butter

Deficiency manifestations:

  1. Rickets in children
  2. Osteomalacia  in adults 

 (c)Vitamin E: It has been called “A vitamin in search of a disease”

It was not discovered by observing a deficiency disease in humans but instead by animal experiments. The main biological function of vitamin E is its action as an anti-oxidants and scavengers of free radicals.

It also promotes the immune system and has an anti-inflammatory role.

Dietary sources:


   2. Milk

   3.Seed oils

Deficiency manifestations:

  1. Muscular weakness
  2. Haemolytic anemia
vitamins and minerals

 (c)Vitamin k: The name vitamin k is derived from the German word coagulation. The most important function of vitamin k is in the synthesis of blood clotting factors.

It also requires the activation of some factors like factor 2 (prothrombin), 7,9, and 10.

Dietary sources:



   3.egg yolk

Deficiency manifestations:

  1. Bleeding tendency
  2. Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamins that dissolve in water quickly in your body are water-soluble vitamins. They carry to the tissues.

However, it can’t be stored in your body.

Although, These vitamins have various tasks to do in the human body.

In fact, It helps free the energy from the food consumed and keep your tissues healthy.

(a)Vitamin B1: it was the first B-complex to be identified, hence called B1. It was first recognized as an anti-beriberi factor.

Additionally, It is also known as thiamine. It plays an important role in energy metabolism. The active coenzyme form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP).

Dietary sources:




   4.Germ of cereals

Deficiency manifestations:

  1. Beriberi
  2. Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome

(b)Vitamin B2: it is also known as riboflavin. Riboflavin is a yellow fluorescent substance. It participates in a wide range of redox reactions. Thus, it is essential for cellular respiration and energy-yielding catabolic pathways.

Dietary sources:



   3.Green leaf vegetable

Deficiency manifestations:

  1. ariboflavinosis

(c)Vitamin B3: It is also known as niacin. Niacin is a nutritional term that uses two related compounds, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide.

Hence, this vitamin can endogenously synthesize from an amino acid, tryptophan.

Dietary sources:

   1.Unrefined grains



Deficiency manifestations:


(d)Vitamin B5: Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid, is one of the most significant vitamins for human life.

Additionally, It’s necessary for making blood cells, and it helps you convert the food you eat into energy.

Dietary sources:




Deficiency manifestations:


(e)Vitamin B6: It is also known as pyridoxine. It is the generic name for a group of substances: pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine.

In fact, the biochemical function of this vitamin is in several reactions of amino acid metabolism.

Dietary sources:




Deficiency manifestations:

   1.Neural dysfunctions

   2.Dermal lesions

(f)Vitamin B9: It is also known as folic acid. It serves as a carrier ofc-1units during several biosynthetic processes.

The active coenzyme form of folic acid is tetrahydrofolate(THF).

Although, the biochemical function of THF is DNA and RNA synthesis, amino acid metabolism, protein biosynthesis.

Dietary sources:



   3.Green leaf vegetable

Deficiency manifestations:

   1.megaloblastic anaemia

(g)Vitamin B12:

It is also known as cobalamin. Cobalamin, together with folic acid, is termed hemopoietic vitamin.

Although, The unique feature of cobalamin is that they synthesize only by a few species of bacteria.

Dietary sources:




Deficiency manifestations:

   1.Pernicious anemia

(e)Vitamin C: it is also known as ascorbic acid. It was first isolated from orange juice as a substance with anti-scurvy properties.

In fact, It participates several biochemical reactions as a reducing agent such as in carnitine synthesis, hydroxylation of proline and lysine. It also acts as an antioxidant

Dietary sources:

   1.Citrus fruits



Deficiency manifestations:


Common signs and symptoms if you are deficient to Vitamin

A nutritious and balanced diet benefits your body in many ways. However, deficiency of specific vitamins can result in health problems which are the following:

  • Mouth Ulcer
  • Brittle hairs and/or nails
  • Bleeding gums
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Loss of hairs
  • Poor night vision
  • Cracks at the corner of the mouth
  • Dandruff or scaly patch

Although, A well-balanced diet can help your body to get the required nutrients to function adequately.

Incorporating fruits, vegetables, seafood, and nuts in your daily diet will be best for your optimum health and wellness.

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