VITAMIN B AND FUNCTIONS OF IT.

VITAMIN B

vitamin b

(Water soluble vitamin)

VITAMIN B play a very important role in cell metabolism. In all there are eight B vitamins and collectively they are called vitamin B complex.

They are as follows:-

  1. B1- Thiamin
  2. B2- Riboflavin
  3. B3- Niacin
  4. B5- Pantothenic acid
  5. B6- Pyroxine
  6. B7- Biotin
  7. B9- Folate
  8. B12- Cobalamin

These vitamins are either a cofactor (acts like a catalyst to increase the rate of a chemical reaction) or precursors (participates in a chemical reaction to produce another compound).

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMINS B

In fact, The main function of these vitamin B is to see the proper functioning of the body cells in the human body.

They perform their role individually as well as together in a group. They do this in the following manner:-

  • Converting food into energy
  • Creating new blood cells
  • Maintaining healthy skin cells
  • By Maintaining body tissues
  • Maintaining healthy brain cells

Each vitamin has its own role to play. Here let us deal with each one separately.

VITAMIN B1 (thiamin)

Thiamin is required by heart, liver, brain and kidney. Its functions are:-

  • To break down carbohydrates
  • create neurotransmitters to the brain
  • To synthesize hormones
  • To produce fatty acids

VITAMIN B2 (riboflavin)

Besides, The role of this vitamin is as follows:-

  • Production of energy
  • To break down fats
  • Production of vitamin B3
  • Converting B6 into coenzymes
  • Breaking down hormones

VITAMIN B3 (niacin)

This is one of the most important B vitamin. It helps in more than 400 different enzyme reactions in the body.

The major ones are listed below:-

  • Converting energy obtained from food into a form which body can absorb easily
  • Helps in metabolic processes taking place in the cells
  • Helps in communication among cells
  • Plays an important role in the DNA in cells

VITAMIN B5 (pantothenic acid)

Additionally, this vitamin helps in creating new coenzymes, fats and proteins in the body.

It is present in the blood and uses the nutrients to generate energy and regulate metabolism.

VITAMIN B6 (pyridoxine)

This vitamin helps in more than 100 enzymes reactions. Its main function is as follows:-

  • Development of brain
  • Breaking down carbohydrates and fats
  • Helps in enhancing the immunity of the body
  • Helps in amino acid metabolism

VITAMIN B7 (biotin)

In fact this vitamin helps in maintaining healthy hair, skin and nails. It helps in prevention of a skin disease called psoriasis.

It is useful to the body in the following way:-

  • Break down of fats
  • To Break down of carbohydrate
  • Break down of proteins
  • In communication among cells

VITAMIN B9 (folate)

Furthermore, It occurs in the natural form as folate and in synthetic form (as supplements) as folic acid.

This vitamin is generally administered to pregnant ladies to avoid birth defects of brain and spinal cord.

It helps in the metabolism of vitamins and amino acids and also helps in proper cell division.

VITAMIN B12 (cobalamin)

This vitamin contains mineral called cobalt.

In fact it is an important vitamin required by the body for proper functioning of brain and nerve cells.

It also helps in the metabolism of fat and proteins.

It contributes in the production of new blood cells and in the synthesis of DNA.

Usually, it is one of the most important vitamins and vegetarians are the worst hit by the deficiency of this vitamin as it is not present in the required quantity in plants.

SOURCES OF B VITAMINS

B vitamins are found in almost all the food we eat like fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals oil and meat.

But it is found in abundance in non- vegetarian food.

Few of the sources are listed below:-

  • Meat (in abundance)
  • Unprocessed food
  • Pulses
  • Beans
  • Whole grains
  • Molasses
  • Bananas
  • Potatoes
  • Chilli pepers
  • On the other hand Vitamin B 12 is found in required quantity only in non- vegetarian food.

DEFICIENCY OF B VITAMINS

In fact, there are total 8 B vitamins. All have a vital role to play in the functioning of human body.

As already mentioned they play their roles individually as well as in a group.

Also deficiency of any one will give rise to illness.

The illness related with each B vitamins in given below:

VITAMIN B1 (thiamin)

Vitamin B1 deficiency leads to following heath problems.

  • Additionally, Beriberi which causes complication of nerve, heart and digestive system.
  • Weight loss
  • Emotional disturbance
  • Weakness and pain in the limbs
  • Confabulation (memory error)
  • Dementia
  • Amnesia

Thiamin is also administered to people who are in coma.

On the other hand, Some athletes take in thiamin to improve their performance.

It is also given to cervical cancer patients, AIDS patient and people of weak immune system.

VITAMIN B2 (riboflavin)

Riboflavin is mainly responsible for healthy good dental health including the lips and mouth.

As a matter of fact, the problems related to deficiency of this vitamin are as under:-

  • Stomatitis  (It is an inflammation of the lips and mouth)
  • Gingivitis (It is inflammation of gums. The gums turn red or purple)
  • Plaque (It means bleeding gums)
  • Periodontitis  (can lead to tooth loss)
  • Ulceration (mouth ulcers)
  • Swelling of lymph nodes
  • migraine

Latest study has found that gingivitis leads to Alzheimer’s.

In fact The study says that the bacteria of gingivitis can move from mouth to the brain.

VITAMIN B3 (niacin)

In addition, Niacin is an essential nutrient required by the human body. Its deficiency leads to following health issues.

  • Pellaga (it affects the skin, digestion and mental health)
  • Dementia (brain desease)
  • Amnesia
  • Psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, restlessness etc.
  • Irritated or red skin
  • Headache
  • Digestive problems
  • Low concentration
  • Dizziness
  • Poor circulation

Additionally, The overdose or deficiency of this vitamin affects the growth of cells in the human body.

Both high n low levels of this vitamin cause cancer, especially in women.

VITAMIN B5 (pantothenic acid)

Additionally, The deficiency of this vitamin is very rare.

The symptoms related to the deficiency of this vitamin are as follows:-

  • Paresthesia (pricking, chilling, burning, tingling and numbness in arms and legs)
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Irritability
  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar level)
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Insulin sensitivity

VITAMIN B6 (pyridoxine)

The deficiency of this vitamin is rare and is seen mainly in elderly people or alcoholics or in women with type 1 diabetes.

Alternatively, It is also seen in patients suffering from liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV.

The symptoms of the deficiency are as under:-

  • Seborrhoeic dermatitis ( red, inflamed and itchy skin)
  • Glossitic (soreness of tongue with white coating)
  • Angular cheilitis (inflammation on both corners of the mouth)
  • Conjunctivitis (pink eyes)
  • Intertrigo (rash on skin within body folds)
  • Sleepiness / drowsiness
  • Neurological problems

VITAMIN B7 (biotin)

The deficiency of this vitamin occurs due to lack of proper nutrition.

On the other hand, If the symptoms remain untreated it leads to death.

It can happen to people of all age and gender.

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