Minerals are inorganic, non-calorigenic micronutrients, the vital micronutrients to maintain the human body’s growth, health, and development. A large number of minerals are present in nature. The human body requires only a few for its growth and maintenance. 

They are classified as significant elements (need more than 100 mg/day) and trace elements (less than 100 mg/day) based on the daily requirements. Your body use minerals for performing different functions which include the following:

  • Build strong bones
  • Make enzymes and hormones
  • Transmit nerve impulse
  • Maintains normal heartbeat
  • Keep heart, muscles, and bones work efficiently

Minerals are components of body fluids and the inorganic matrix of bone. Examples are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium.



Calcium is the most abundant mineral with body stores of 1-1.4 kg. About 99% of this is present in the crystalline structure of bones and teeth. Rest 1% is in membranes, cellular cement substances, and plasma. It helps activate enzymes, muscle contraction, bone and teeth component, blood coagulation, and nerve excitability.

Dietary Sources:-

  • Milk and milk products are the richest sources of calcium
  • Beans
  • Cabbage
  • Egg
  • fish 

Deficiency of Minerals:

Minerals are the nutrients that are essential for the proper functioning of the human body. The deficiency of minerals is experienced when your body cannot absorb or obtain the required minerals. A certain amount of each mineral is needed to stay healthy. This deficiency can result in various health conditions, including fatigue, weak bones, and decreased Immune System.

Minerals are the most significant building blocks for adequate nutrition and a healthy body. Without minerals, other nutrients cannot function properly in your body. It is recommended to incorporate a mineral-rich diet in your daily schedule to stay healthy!


Magnesium mostly occurs in bones, though the smaller amount is present in muscles and soft tissues. It acts as a cofactor for various enzymes, such as hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase. Magnesium is also used for bones and teeth formation.

Dietary Sources:-

  • Nuts
  • Green leafy vegetable
  • Seeds


Total amount of phosphorus in a 70 kg adult is about 1000 g, of which about 85% is present in bones, and 10% in muscles. Phosphate is predominantly an intracellular anion. Serum phosphate concentration ranges from 4.5 to 5.0 mg/dL.It is present in high energy compounds and several co-enzymes.

Dietary Sources:-

  • Milk
  • Leafy vegetable
  • Eggs
  • Meat

The trace minerals

Almost a dozen trace elements are known to be of nutritional importance in humans

Most are essential components of individual proteins. Being toxic at higher doses, they are kept complexed with specific intracellular proteins.

Minerals and vitamins



Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth, only trace amounts are present in living cells. It is one of the essential elements in metabolism, required in several biological processes such as tissue respiration, transport of gases, detoxification. Its deficiency can cause anemia.

Dietary Sources:-

  • Baked potatoes
  • Cashews
  • Tofu
  • Dark green leafy vegetable


Next to iron, zinc is the second most abundant trace element in humans and Minerals. The adult body’s total zinc content is about 2 g, out of which 60% is in muscles, 28% in bones, and 0.5% in blood. The daily requirement is about 16 mg in adults (10 mg/day in children and 20 mg/day in pregnancy and lactation.

 Alcoholism, chronic liver, and renal diseases are commonly associated with zinc deficiency.

Dietary Sources:-

  • Red meat
  • Seafood
  • Beans
  • Nuts


Copper is a component of several enzymes or proteins minerals that participate in redox reactions. The total amount in the human body is 60-100 mg. The enormous amounts are present in muscles (30-50 mg), bones (10-12 mg), and liver (10-15 mg).

Dietary Sources:-

  • Shellfish
  • Seeds and nuts 
  • Meat


Iodine is widely distributed in nature, a small amount is present in the human body (45-50 mg). Of this, most (80%) is present in thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T) and triiodothyronine (Ts).

The daily requirement is 100-150 mcg/day. Sources are drinking water, marine fish, lobsters, and seaweeds grew in iodine-rich seawater. Iodine is present in thyroid hormones, its deficiency causes hypothyroidism. 

Dietary Sources:-

  • Fish
  • Dairy products 
  • Milk


It is part of the glucose tolerance factor and minerals that facilitate insulin’s action on its target tissues. Chromium potentiates the activity of insulin. Diabetic individuals do not often show any favorable response to chromium

Dietary Sources:-

  • Broccoli
  • Grape juice
  • Oranges


Selenium deficiency has been reported in Keshan province in China due to low concentrations of selenium in the soil. The disease is characterized by cardiac enlargement and myopathy.

Dietary Sources:-

  • Yogurt
  • Pork
  • Chicken
  • Eggs
  • Beef


Occurs in few oxidase enzymes: xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulphite Oxidase.

Dietary Sources:-

  • Legumes
  • Whole grains
  • Nuts
  • Beef liver

Conclusion: Vitamins and Minerals are the most Important!

That’s it about Minerals.

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